Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have potential on gene therapy effectiveness and biocompatibility


  • Moataz Dowaidar


Recent breakthroughs in employing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to improve gene transmission to stem cells are outlined in this study, which highlights IONPs' unique properties as biocompatible metal-based gene delivery vectors. The physicochemical characteristics of IONPs, as discussed in this study, have a major effect on gene transmission effectiveness and biocompatibility with stem cells. Regulated syntheses of homogeneous IONPs are preferable for successful, reproducible gene delivery. In addition, synthesizing or assembling IONPs with higher ARs can boost cell absorption, enhancing the effectiveness of gene transmission to stem cells. In addition, magnetofection technology has a substantial influence on stem cell gene transmission. An unoptimized transfection approach resulted in severe cytotoxicity and a significant reduction in levels of gene expression. Gene delivery using IONPs and external magnetic force, on the other hand, has demonstrated excellent results in overcoming serum interference and boosting target gene transmission to 3D cell cultures. Notably, serum-resistant and 3D gene transfer are beneficial for maintaining stem cell survival and stem after magnetofection. However, considerable challenges remain in the way IONP-assisted gene trafficking to stem cells, including the unknown bioeffects of IONPs on stem cell behavior and the large-scale fabrication of controlled size and shape monodispersed IONPs. Used at appropriate concentrations for gene delivery, IONPs exhibit no deleterious influence on stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation capacity. However, the dose-dependent toxicity of IONPs and the potential hazards associated with using transfection agents such as PEI require extra attention. Moreover, the potential bio-influences of IONPs and ionized ions on stem cell biological behaviors should be thoroughly examined and studies of new undiscovered bio-effects should continue. Meanwhile, another issue worth addressing for the real use of IONPs as a powerful and omnipresent platform tool to transport target genes to stem cells for medicinal reasons is the large-scale synthesis of homogeneous IONPs with low interbatch variations. IONPs have shown their extraordinary ability to increase the effectiveness of gene transport to stem cells, making them superior to other gene delivery techniques in terms of multifunctional stem cell engineering, paired with their high biocompatibility and promising functionality. However, the challenges of using IONPs to deliver genes to stem cells involve chemistry, physics, material science, pharmaceutics, and cell biology and require more multidisciplinary collaborations to achieve breakthroughs and translate this promising stem cell gene delivery strategy into medical practice