Tumor microenvironment has clinical significance in terms of prognosis and therapy prediction


  • Moataz Dowaidar


At this point, the tumor microenvironment (TME) clinical significance in terms of prognosis and therapy prediction has become obvious. The TME is comprised of a varied population of cytokine/chemokine-releasing cells, which results in a local immune response. Colorectal cancer cells also produce antigens that are responsible for initiating an antitumor response. A better clinical prognosis is linked to a large number of effector T cells, which are predominantly made up of CD8+ CTLs, and a low concentration of regulatory T cells. Concentration of PD-L1 and its mutation load are both predictors of a response to anti-PD-L1 treatment. Despite ICI clinical trials showing that ICIs work, patients' responses to ICIs differ depending on the indication. With the emergence of TME-based biomarkers, we will demand additional TME-based biomarkers for more accurate therapies. The spatial-temporal interaction of immune system cells will also need to be investigated, in addition to current test criteria such as the identification of somatic changes, measurement of TMB, loss of HLA locus, and assessment of PD-L1 expression. Also, in order to accurately identify ICI therapy's most favorable recipients, identifying patients who will most benefit from ICI therapy solely or in combination with other treatment modalities is crucial.